Old Stone Age Period (700,000 years ago -1 million years ago)
Back to 500,000 to 700,000 years ago, Beijing had a mild climate, as well as abundant rainfalls. Peking Man lived in caves in the southern suburbs of West Beijing. They were one of pre-history humans who first knew how to use fire. With fire, civilization began.
Neolithic Age (10,000 years ago -4000 years ago)
Obviously, Peking Man is industrious and studious. They arrived at vast plains from mountain caves. They built timber houses to resist the beast. They constituted families, and learned to make simple tools and accessories: men made stone plates, stone bars, and even burnt out fine pottery, while girls stringed exquisite shells together to be necklaces.
Ceramic technology was one of signs which humanity entered into the agricultural society. Peking Man learned to grazing and planting crops.
Shang Dynasty (16th century BC - 11th century BC)
During Yanhuang period, Yandi and Huangdi planned three wars in Banquan near Beijing (now Huailai, Hebei), and the war expanded to the Yellow River, Jianghan districts. Since then, China had formed a unified Chinese nation. Here came the word “Chinese Descendants".
Meanwhile, there were some small countries in Beijing 3,000 years ago, of which Ji and Yan are most famous.
Zhou Dynasty (11th century BC - 771 BC) and Eastern Zhou era (770 BC - 221 BC)Around 1045 BC, King Wu of the Zhou dynasty established Zhou and granted many vassals after defeating Shang Zhou. In "Historical Records" Sima Qian said: “This year is considered to be the beginning of the city of Beijing.”
Han Dynasty (206 BC -220 years)2200 years ago, the Qin Dynasty unified China. First Emperor of Qin abolished the feudal system, established a centralized system of prefectures and counties. Beijing became a famous city. At the end of Western Han Dynasty, Buddhism spread from India to China. 1,700 years ago, Beijing had the first Buddhist temple--- Tanzhe temple.
Southern and Northern Dynasties (220-589 years)
1700 years ago, China was in conflicts and divisions which lasted for 300 years in Jin Dynasty. The north area is occupied by Huns, Jie, Di and other ethnic minorities. At this time Beijing had become the political center of northern ethnic minorities.
Sui Dynasty (581-618) and Tang (618-907)
Sui Dynasty unified China, then it dugged the world-famous Grand Canal, whose northern end is Beijing.
Song, Liao and Jin Dynasties (960-1234 years)
Today's Niujie Mosque and the Marco Polo Bridge are legacies of this era.
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
In AD 1215, Genghis Khan captured Beijing. His successor Kublai Khan established the country of Yuan, built its capital Beijing. Beijing became a unified nation's capital for the first time.
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
In AD 1399, Zhu Di seized the throne of Emperor Zhu Yunwen. Zhu Di thought that Peking is a place where born dragons. In Peking, he could control desert in the South and plains in the north. Then he moved the capital to Peking, and renamed it “Beijing”. Zhu Di expansion the imperial city based on the Yuan Dynasty. Today, Beijing's most classical buildings are relics of the Ming Dynasty.
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
Manchu people started architectural work on a large scale after entering into Beijing, In AD 1860, the Second Opium War outbroke. British and French forces invaded Beijing, and burned down the world's largest royal park - Summer Palace.
On October 1, 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong stood in the center of Tiananmen Square and declared the foundation of the PRC. The city was renamed back to Beijing. ust a few days earlier, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference had decided that Beijing would be the capital of the new government.
Since then, after 3000 years of ups and downs this monumental city entered a new period of rapid development.
The old and new Beijing is waiting for your visit. As a professional tour operator in China, we can be your best tour guide in China.